Canku Ota
(Many Paths)
An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America
Virginia (Powhatan)
Mattaponi and Pamunkey Indian Reservations - Virginia's Hidden Heritage
When envisioning an Indian Reservation, your mind immediately turns westward. However, there are Indian Reservations much closer to home, right here in Virginia. Two such reservations lie virtually hidden from existence less than an hour away from Richmond. The Pamunkey Reservation, located in King William, Virginia and the Mattaponi Reservation, located in West Point, Virginia are small monuments to the once thriving tribes which were represented in the great Powhattan Confederacy that dates back as far as 1600 AD.
Matter of Perspective: Virginia's Indian Trib…
As of the 1990 census, there were 16,391 Native Americans currently residing in Virginia. Some are members of Virginia's recognized tribes. Representatives from tribes all over the United States now consider Virginia home.
At the time of the Jamestown Settlement in 1607 the Nansemond tribe was located in the general area of Reeds Ferry, near Chuckatuck, in the current city of Suffolk, Virginia.
The Pamunkey nation are one of eleven Virginia Indian tribes recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia. The historical tribe was part of the Powhatan paramountcy, made up of Algonquian-speaking tribes. The Powhatan paramount chiefdom was made up over 30 tribes, estimated to total about 10,000-15,000 people at the time the English arrived in 1607. The Pamunkey tribe made up approximately one-tenth to one-fifteenth of the total, as they numbered about 1,000 persons in 1607.When the English arrived, the Pamunkey were one of the most powerful groups of the Powhatan chiefdom. They inhabited the coastal tidewater of Virginia on the north side of the James River near Chesapeake Bay.
Virginia Council on Indians Homepage
March, 1982, the House of Delegates, the Senate concurring, created a subcommittee consisting of eleven members to undertake a comprehensive study of the historic dealings and relationship between the Commonwealth of Virginia and the Virginia Indian Tribes. The joint subcommittee report, resulted in the formation of the "Commission on Indians".
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Wampanoag Indians
The Wampanoag Indians lived in what is now known as Massachusetts and Rhode Island in the early part of the 17th century. The name means “easterners” and at one point, their population was 12,000. Among the more famous Wampanoag chiefs were Squanto, Samoset, Metacomet, and Massasoit.
Massachusetts Indian language
In 1634, William Woods' book New England's Prospect was published. He had visited Massachusetts for several years. What follows is a reprint of the last portion of his book--a list of the words he picked up from the Native Americans living in Massachusetts.
Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head Aquinnah:
The ancestors of Wampanoag people have lived for at least 10,000 years at Aquinnah (Gay Head) and throughout the island of Noepe (Martha's Vineyard), pursuing a traditional economy based on fishing and agriculture.
Warm Springs
Warm Springs Reservation
Welcome to Warm Springs, a nation where the sun shines most every day and time turns to the pace of a culture that has been thousands of years in the making.
Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California
The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California is a federally recognized Indian Tribe organized pursuant to the Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934, as amended. The Tribe has four communities, three in Nevada (Stewart, Carson, and Dresslerville), and one in California (Woodfords). There is also a Washoe community located within the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony. The Tribe has jurisdiction over trust allotments in both Nevada and California, with additional Tribal Trust parcels located in Alpine, Placer, Sierra, Douglas, Carson, and Washoe Counties.
The Washo Project
The Washo language (also Washoe) is an endangered Native American language isolate spoken by the Washo on the California–Nevada border in the drainages of the Truckee and Carson Rivers, especially around Lake Tahoe. While there are very few speakers of Washo today (only 10 according to some; 252 according to the 2000 US Census), there are Washo-language programs aimed at increasing the number of proficient speakers.Washo belongs to the Great Basin culture area and is the only non-Numic group of that area. The language has borrowed from the neighboring Uto-Aztecan, Maiduan and Miwokan languages and is connected to both the Great Basin and California sprachbunds.
Speaking the language of the land
As the sun rose over Lake Tahoe, a line of children held hands and prayed to the lake in their native tongue, Washoe. The sunlight glowed on the water and splashed bright color on their faces where they stood looking out over the water.
See Ho-Chunk/Winnebago
Native Americans Around Mt. Shasta - Wintu
The Wintu are the northern most group of the Wintun people that inhabit a long narrow stretch of the western Sacramento Valley north of the San Francisco bay to the Trinity/Sacramento/McCloud rivers (Lapena 324). Other names associated with the Wintu have included: Wintun, Wintoons, Kenesti, Patawe and Northern Wintun (Brandt and Davis-Kimball xviii).
The Wintu Share Their Cottonwood Valley
The so called Cottonwood Indians had existed for hundreds of years in this area prior to the coming of the Europeans. At the time of the arrival of the whites, the indigenous peoples had fairly definite areas of habitation, with the Yana (Nosa-Nozi) occupying the area east of the Sacramento River, and three general Wintun peoples occupying the area west of the river and into the foothills. Frémont named what we now know as Battle Creek "Nozi Creek" after these Yana people. Less observant whites frequently lumped them all together with the unfriendly epithet "Diggers."
Huron - Wendat of Wendake
Bienvenue sur le site officiel du Regroupement des familles wendat. Survolez-le afin de mieux connaître la Nation Huronne-Wendat et son dévloppement.
Wyandot Nation of Kansas
The Wyandot Nation of Kansas is proud to be a member of the Wendat Confederacy.
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Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation
The current boundaries of the Fort McDowell reservation mark only a small portion of the ancestral territory of the bands of Yavapais whos homeland was the vast area called Arizona and the Mogollon Rim country. The Yavapai Indians descended from the Hohokam culture and have a language similar to the Havasupai and Hualapai Indians.
Yavapai-Apache Nation
Welcome to the Yavapai-Apache Nation Web Site.
Yup'ik of Western Alaska
The Yup'ik Eskimos of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta area in Western Alaska lived in an environment that was very different from our stereotyped images of a barren, icy, harsh existence
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Pueblo of Zuni
The Zuni Pueblo is nestled in a scenic valley, surrounded by the enchanting mesas, located about 150 miles west of Albuquerque. The main reservation, is located in the McKinley and Cibola counties in the western part of New Mexico. The estimated number of acres encompasses about 450,000 acres. The tribe has land holdings in Catron County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona, which are not adjoining to the main reservation.
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Activities for ESL Students
This web site has over 1,000 activities to help you study English as a Second Language. This project of The Internet TESL Journal includes contributions by many teachers.
American Indian Language Policy and School Success
This article looks from a historical perspective at what impact the implementation of the American Indian Languages Act might have on Indian education.
Dave's ESL Cafe
First introduced in 1995, this well-known website, designed and maintained by Dave Sperling, is a meeting place for both ESL teachers and students. This friendly site provides numerous resources for instruction, activities and games, specific teaching tips, as well as opportunities for ESL teachers and ESL students to interact with their peers through chats and discussion groups.
Directory of ESL Resources Online
The National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education and the ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, with funding from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA) and Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), have created this online directory of ESL resources.
Ethnologue:Americas Languages
United States of America. 261,000,000 (1994 US Census Bureau); 1,900,000 American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts, not all speaking indigenous languages (1990 census).
Foundation For Endangered Languages
The aims of the Foundation are: to raise awareness of endangered languages, both inside and outside the communities where they are spoken, through all channels and media; ...
Indigenous Language Institute
The Indigenous Language Institute (ILI) facilitates innovative and successful community-based initiatives for language revitalization through collaboration with other appropriate groups, organizations, and individuals. The organization also promotes public awareness of the importance of preserving indigenous languages. The guiding philosophy behind ILI is to help create speakers of endangered indigenous languages while we still have speakers left.
Language List
Linguistic Classificationof American Indians
Lannan Foundation Language Grants
Lannan has supported several local efforts toward the revitalization and preservation of Native languages. These projects are located throughout the United States, and involve a number of different languages including Blackfoot, Mohawk, Hawaiian, and Washo.
Learn English-Have Fun
Learn english and have fun on this site!
Do you want to learn English? Do you want to have fun?
If your answer is "Yes", then you are at the right place for ESL practice.
Here you can find English games to give you fun practice, English crosswords to help you remember all those new words, ESL tests to practise vocabulary and grammar, and great English jokes so you can laugh while you learn. Make every day an English day
Learning an Endangered Language
Some ways you can learn more about an endangered language, investigate languages indigenous to your own locality, take a course in an endangered language, buy a recording of an endangered language, read a grammar of an endangered language.
Native American Languages Act 1990
To establish as the policy of the United States the preservation, protection, and promotion of the rights of Native Americans to use, practice and develop Native American languages, to take steps to foster such use, practice and development, and for other purposes.
Native Languages Page
Links to many Native American languages.
North Amerindian Languages
Numbers in North Amerindian Languages
Resources for Endangered Languages
This site is for members and friends of endangered language communities, with an emphasis on Native American languages
Saving Our Tongues
Tony Mattina wishes we'd pay as much attention to saving Native American languages as we do to preserving plant and animal species like the spotted owl.
Stabilizing Indigenous Languages
Stabilizing Indigenous Languages includes descriptions of successful native language programs and papers by leaders in the field of indigenous language study.
Teaching Indigenous Languages Home Page
Teaching Indigenous Languages-Educators Resources
"the People's Paths home page!" First People's Language
First People's Language Resources!
Languages of the United States of America
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  Canku Ota is a free, bi-weekly, online Newsletter celebrating Native America, its traditions and accomplishments . We do not provide subscriber or visitor names to anyone. Some articles presented in Canku Ota may contain copyright material. We have received appropriate permissions for republishing any articles. Material appearing here is distributed without profit or monetary gain to those who have expressed an interest. This is in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107 Fair Use doctrine of international copyright law. Please read our privacy policy.  
Canku Ota is a copyright © 2000, 2001 of Vicki Lockard and Paul Barry.
The "Canku Ota - A Newsletter Celebrating Native America" web site and its design is the
Copyright © 1999, 2000, 2001 of Paul C. Barry.
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