Canku Ota
(Many Paths)
An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America
About The Traverse Des Sioux
Long before Europeans made their first forays into what is now Minnesota, Traverse Des Sioux was well known among Indian tribes as a fording place on the Minnesota River. Early French explorers gave the site its present name. Translated it means "Crossing Place of the Sioux". The Nicollet County Historical Society has built the Treaty Site History Center and will interpret this important period of US history and the ramifications the treaty had for both cultures, as well as other aspects of the area's history from pre-culture to the present.
A History of the NW Coast
July 18, 1774 The Juan Perez' visit to Queen Charlotte Islands and later to Nootka Sound.
In November of 1969, an historic event occurred in the San Francisco Bay which would leave a profound impact on the lives of Native Americans. Beginning in the early afternoon of November 9, and continuing later that evening, a flurry of activities ignited the hopes and dreams of reclaiming Alcatraz Island in the name of Indian people.
Alcatraz Island
A collection of unique photographs which historically document the 1969-1971 occupation of Alcatraz Island by Indians of All Tribes, Inc.
Alcatraz-We Hold the Rock
On this day, Indian people once again came to Alcatraz Island when Richard Oakes, a Mohawk Indian, and a group of Indian supporters set out in a chartered boat, the Monte Cristo, to symbolically claim the island for the Indian people. On November 20, 1969, this symbolic occupation turned into a full scale occupation which lasted until June 11, 1971.
Ancient Architects of the Mississippi
WONDERS OF GEOMETRIC PRECISION, the earthworks of the lower Mississippi were centers of life long before the Europeans arrived in America. As was the river itself. The alluvial soil of its banks yielded a bounty of beans, squash, and corn to foster burgeoning communities. Over the Mississippi’s waters, from near and far, came prized pearls, copper, and mica.
Ancient Middle America - U. of Minnesota, Duluth
Teotihuacán, City of the Gods Learn all about the magnificent Native American City.
The remains of the most sophisticated prehistoric native civilization north of Mexico are preserved at Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site. Within the 2,200-acre tract, located a few miles west of Collinsville, Illinois, lie the archaeological remnants of the central section of the ancient settlement that is today known as Cahokia.
Common Symbols and Motifs in Minnesota Rock Art
COMMON SYMBOLS AND MOTIFS IN MINNESOTA ROCK ART by Kevin L. Callahan Anthropology Department University of Minnesota NOTE: The following interpretations of symbols and motifs have been made by various authors.
Fort Laramie National Historic Site
As America expanded westward, Fort Laramie played an important role on the high plains. Founded in 1834 as Fort William, a fur-trading post, it was a center for trade in beaver pelts and buffalo robes, and a place for mountain men, frontier entrepeneurs, and Plains Indians to mingle.
Geology of Pipestone National Monument
The story, of this stone and the pipes made from it spans four centuries of Plains Indian life. Inseparable from the traditions that structured daily routine and honored the spirit world, pipes figured prominently in the ways of the village and in dealings between tribes. The story parallels that of a culture in transition: the evolution of the pipes influenced— and was influenced by—their makers' association with white explorers, traders, soldiers, and settlers.
History of the Florida Indians
At the beginning of the historic period, in 1492 AD, it is conservatively estimated that there were about 100,000 Indians living in Florida. Some estimate as many as 350,000. Accepting the first estimate, the distribution is thought of as this: Timucuans in the northeast, 40,000; Apalachee and Pensacola in the northwest, 25,000; Tocobaga in the west-central, 8,000; Calusa in the southwest, 20,000; Tequesta in the southeast, 5,000; Jeaga, Jobe and Ais in the east-central, 2,000. There were others, as well as sub-groups, i.e., Saturiwa, Santaluces, Boca Ratones, Tocobaga, etc. By the late 1700s, it is thought that all of these indigenous Indians were gone. Also, note that there is no mention of the Seminoles, as they did not enter Florida until the early 1700s.
History of the North Dakota Indian Tribes
The five tribes within North Dakota are now known as:  Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, Spirit Lake Nation (Ft.Totten), Three Affiliated Tribes (Ft. Berthold), Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe
Indian Peoples of the Northern Great Plains
Images of the Indian Peoples of the Northern Great Plains is a searchable online photograph database created with grant support from the Institute of Museum and Library Services National Leadership Grant Program.
Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung Historical Centre
Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung, is the word in the Ojibway language for "Place of the Long Rapids." More than just a physical location on the Rainy River in Northwestern Ontario, Kay–Nah–Chi–Wah–Nung is a place of spirituality, history and beauty. Designated as one of Canada's National Historical Sites in 1970, it's importance has been acknowledged for generations by natives and non–natives alike.
Marin Museum of the American Indian
The Marin Museum of the American Indian is dedicated to cultivating an awareness and understanding of Native American history and culture.
Mesa Verde
Established by Congress on September 29, 1906, Mesa Verde - Spanish for "Green Table" - is the first national park set aside to preserve the work of humankind
Mesa Verde National Park
Mesa Verde National Park has the finest examples of Ancestral Puebloan structures and cliff dwellings in the world, dating from about 550AD to about 1300AD.
Northern Cheyenne Sand Creek Massacre Site Project
The Cheyenne Descendants and the Northern Cheyenne Tribe consider the 1864 Sand Creek Massacre profoundly significant, it is one of the greatest tragedies to mark relations between Indian and Anglo Americans. The Sand Creek massacre remains an open wound for the Indian people, Colorado History and U.S. History.
PBS - THE WEST - Documents on the Sand Creek Massacre (1864-1865)
I. Two Editorials from the Rocky Mountain News (1864)
II. Congressional testimony by John S. Smith, an eyewitness to the massacre (1865)
III. Deposition by John M. Chivington (1865)
Pipestone, Minnesota
The city and county of Pipestone are named after the soft red stone called catlinite or pipestone, which was essential to the area's development. American Indians quarried in the beds of red-colored claystone and shale in the general vicinity of what is today the Pipestone National Monument, since 1200 A.D.
Pipestone Indian Shrine Association
Pipestone National Monument occupies the site of the famed pipestone quarries of Minnesota. Pipestone Indian Shrine Association offices are located within the visitor center of the monument in the Midwest Indian Cultural Center. The Pipestone Indian Shrine has it roots back to the 1930's and the first attempts to have the area recognized as a National Park Service Area.
It is always 1627 in the village of "New Plymouth." Learn more about how history repeats itself through the Living History, First Person and Interpretive Artisan programs in Plimoth Plantation's Pilgrim Village.
Postcards from the Edge of a Country - Cards sent to Sherman Institute
Since opening it's doors in 1892, the Sherman Institute had kept and maintained all student and administrative documents. After the inception of the museum in 1970, most of these documents were transferred to the Sherman Museum, where they remain today. Among the large volume of documents was a small box of postcards, some dating from the turn of the last century.
Poverty Point
Poverty Point is a major archaeological mystery. The mystery centers on the ruins of a large prehistoric Indian settlement, the Poverty Point site. There on a bluff top overlooking Mississippi River swamplands in northeastern Louisiana is a group of artificial mounds and embankments. It is not the earthworks themselves that are so mysterious. Eastern North America is, after all, the land of the "Mound Builders." These people once were thought to be a highly advanced, extinct race, but now are known to be ancestors of Native Americans, such as the Creek, Choctaw, Shawnee, and Natchez. The real mystery lies in the size and age of the earthworks. They are among the largest native constructions known in eastern North America, yet they are old, older than any other earthworks of this size in the western hemisphere.
Sherman Institute
The Sherman Institute is located at 9010 Magnolia Avenue between Jackson and Monroe streets, in Riverside, California. Several buildings stand on the site, including dormitories, administrative offices, a sports stadium, and a museum. The museum is the only remaining original structure.
Tutt Library, Colorado College - Sand Creek Papers
The Sand Creek Massacre (November 29, 1864) is one of the most controversial Indian conflicts. This event has been the subject of army and Congressional investigations and inquiries, newspaper debates, the object of much oratory and writing biased in both directions and with bitter conflict between the men who were involved. The Sand Creek Massacre was undertaken by citizen and military troops from the Colorado Territory. Evidence is that Chivington undertook the Indian expedition on his own and it did not reflect official government policy. The era of the Indian trader in Colorado came to an end with the Sand Creek Massacre. The dominance of the Cheyennes and Arapahos to the land east of the mountains was broken. Years of bloody battles with the plains tribes followed.
UW's American Indians of the Pacific Northwest:
We can learn from the images and writings of the time...This site provides an extensive digital collection of original photographs and documents about the Northwest Coast and Plateau Indian cultures, complemented by essays written by anthropologists, historians, and teachers about both particular tribes and cross-cultural topics.
Yosemite Park History
Indian people have lived in the Yosemite region for as long as 8,000 years. By the mid-nineteenth century, when native residents had their first contact with non-Indian people, they were primarily of Southern Miwok ancestry. However, trade with the Mono Paiutes from the east side of the Sierra for pinyon pine nuts, obsidian, and other materials from the Mono Basin resulted in many unions between the two tribes.
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