Canku Ota
(Many Paths)
An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America
A Capsule History of Tobacco
Huron Indian myth has it that in ancient times, when the land was barren and the people were starving, the Great Spirit sent forth a woman to save humanity. As she traveled over the world, everywhere her right hand touched the soil, there grew potatoes. And everywhere her left hand touched the soil, there grew corn. And when the world was rich and fertile, she sat down and rested. When she arose, there grew tobacco . . .
American Truths
To avoid repeating or continuing the tragedies of 'History,' we must realize that today's controversies, confusions, and conflicts are parallel-to, continuations-of, and legacies-from our Common Past.
The Canadian Canoe Museum
The Largest collection of Canoes and Kayaks showing the history of Canada's Indigenous People
The Curtis Collection
The Curtis Collection has ownership of the world's largest, most extensive collections of Copper Photogravure Plates ever produced or assembled. These Copper Photogravure Plates represent the life work of Edward Sheriff Curtis and his massive documentation of Native Americans, "The North America Indian". The plates are both historic documentation of Native Americans and priceless artifacts.
"Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian: Photographic Images"
In 1998, Northwestern University Library was awarded a grant from the Library of Congress/Ameritech National Digital Library Competition to support the digitization of all of the illustrations contained in the volumes and portfolios of its copy of The North American Indian. Northwestern also created detailed indexing that permits retrieval of the images by personal name, tribal affiliation, geocultural region, and subject
History Quiz - Did you know?
Did High School History Prepare You to Take This Test...
Based on information in Lies My Teacher Told Me, here are 23 questions to test your knowledge of the quirks and quarks of American history.
Images of Native Americans
The Bancroft Library presents "Images of Native Americans," a digital companion to an exhibit of rare books, photographs, illustrations, and other archival and manuscript materials that debuted in the Fall of 2000, to celebrate the acquisition of the University of California, Berkeley Library's nine millionth volume.
Keepers of the Treasures
The Keepers of the Treasures is a cultural council of American Indians, Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians who preserve, affirm, and celebrate their cultures through traditions and programs that maintain their native languages and lifeways.
Lies My Teacher Told Me
American history is full of fantastic and important stories. These stories have the power to spellbind audiences, even audiences of difficult seventh graders. Yet they sleep through the classes that present it. What has gone wrong?
Native American History Photos
"This collection of historical photographs is provided with the permission of Facts on File, Inc., and is a comprehensive collection of images of Native American people. The collection is arranged chronologically from the prehistoric period and the Paleo-Indians to 1990 and the appointment of R. Richard West as director of the National Museum of the American Indian. The collection includes information and images which describe the lifeways of various tribes and include historical entries for
particular Indian groups. Narrative is provided that provides the historical and cultural background describing the event, person, or subject presented."
Not Just for Kids! A Thanksgiving Lesson Plan
For an Indian, who is also a school teacher, Thanksgiving was never an easy holiday for me to deal with in class. I sometimes have felt like I learned too much about "the Pilgrims and the Indians." Every year I have been faced with the professional and moral dilemma of just how to be honest and informative with my children at Thanksgiving without passing on historical distortions, and racial and cultural stereotypes.
Welcome to PETROGLYPHS.US This site is operated by avocational archaeologist Donald Austin to promote appreciation for prehistoric Native American pictographs and petroglyphs. I believe these ancient sites should be protected from destruction and should be appreciated for the beautiful prehistoric art they represent. The best way to protect these sites is with the cooperation of an informed and enlightened public.
Petroglyphs are also called carved rock, Indian writing, picture writing and rock graphics. The ancient images shown on these pages were created by the Anasazi, Shoshone, Sinagua, Yuman, Kumeyaay, Hohokam, Ute, Fremont, Mohave, Paiute and Desert Culture people who lived in the prehistoric Southwest and Great Basin. This page contains links to my photographs of rock art. I've put several captioned photos from each site on separate pages for your ease of viewing. Each page may take a few minutes to download.
Promontory Cave Moccasins:
A Save America's Treasures conservation project at the Utah Museum of Natural History.
Welcome to the Treaty Index Series
This Index Series has been created by Timm Severud (aka Ondamitag/Host Onda). I have a passion for this subject matter, because in the process of creating the Treaty Text Files in the Treaty Library on AOL, I gained a different insight on history. The treaties talk to the attitudes of peoples of those times.
Upper Midwest Rock Art Research Association
The Upper Midwest Rock Art Research Association is dedicated to publicizing the petroglyph and pictograph research being conducted in the Upper Midwest of the United States, including - but not limited to - Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, North and South Dakota.
US Treaties With Indians
This is a major treaty site. Has an interesting graph of the results of many of the early treaties
Wampum: Beads, Belts, & Repatriation
Wampum beads are used to make wampum strings and wampum belts, which have very important spiritual, political, and cultural meaning to the Haudenosaunee. Wampum strings are used in Haudenosaunee Ceremonies, and they are used to mark the importance of events and meetings.
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Bosque Redondo
When you say "Bosque Redondo" it has a melodious, pleasant sound, but the reality is just the opposite. It was the scene of one of the saddest events in the nation's history.
Burial On The Trail
Tradition and heritage run deep in the collective souls of the Five Civilized Tribes. Centuries before European contact these tribes built communities, developed agricultural economies and created complex tribal governments. The winds of change began to blow and life as they knew it ended as European settlers invaded their nations.
The Dakota Conflict Trials of 1862
The hanging, following trials which condemned over three hundred participants in the 1862 Dakota Conflict, stands as the largest mass execution in American history. Only the unpopular intervention of President Lincoln saved 265 other Dakota from the fate met by the less fortunate thirty-eight. The mass hanging was the concluding scene in the opening chapter of a story of American-Sioux conflict that would not end until the Seventh Calvary completed its massacre at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on December 29, 1890.
On the day after Christmas 1862, the United States hanged 38 Dakota men in Mankato, Minnesota and drove a people out of the state. The heroic story of their brave struggle to survive is told by the Dakota themselves in DAKOTA EXILE - a sequel to the critically acclaimed KTCA documentary, THE DAKOTA CONFLICT.
Great Peace of 1701
Listen To the CBC Story of the Signing of the Great Peace of Montreal
The Long Walk - the 300-mile, forced walk to exile in New Mexico.
The Diné, or Navajo as they were called by the Spanish, share a common Athabascan ancestry with the Apache. The Diné emulated the Pueblo, shedding their animal skin clothing for cotton and learning quickly to farm. They settled in, herding sheep and growing corn in the canyons and mesas between the Rio Grande and the Grand Canyon.
Minnesota's Uncivil War
A war fought in the Minnesota River valley back in 1862 still leaves scars today. On one side were the Dakota Indians. On the other, settlers and the U.S. government. Hundreds of people died on both sides of the five-week long war. It lead to the largest mass execution in U.S. history, when 38 Dakota were hanged in Mankato.
Sandy Lake Tragedy
Listen to the story of the Sandy Lake Tragedy
Spirit Warriors - Little Bighorn Aboriginal Monument
As an element of the Aboriginal Memorial, the Spirit Warriors sculpture will occupy a prominent position on the northwest facing outer ring of the ceremonial circle. The sculpture is envisioned as a two-dimensional line drawing framed by the walls of the memorial and etched against the high prairie landscape and the big Montana sky. The sculpture is meant to convey the living spirit of three mounted warriors racing free across the plains.
Tears in the Sand
Rocky Mountain PBS brings you one of the most comprehensive documentaries available on the Sand Creek Massacre. Our producer tells you the inside story with the help of Southern Cheyenne tribal members.
Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1851
Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Laramie, in the Indian Territory, between D. D. Mitchell, superintendent of Indian affairs, and Thomas Fitzpatrick, Indian agent, commissioners specially appointed and authorized by the President of the United States, of the first part, and the chiefs, headmen, and braves of the following Indian nations, residing south of the Missouri River, east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the lines of Texas and New Mexico, viz, the Sioux or Dahcotahs, Cheyennes, Arrapahoes, Crows, Assinaboines, Gros-Ventre Mandans, and Arrickaras, parties of the second part, on the seventeenth day of September, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one. (a)
Two Row Wampum Treaty Info
The Two Row Wampum Belt says:

"This symbolizes the agreement under which the Iroquois/Haudenosaunee welcomed the white peoples to their lands. 'We will NOT be like father and son, but like brothers. These TWO ROWS will symbolize vessels, travelling down the same river together. One will be for the Original People, their laws, their customs, and the other for the European people and their laws and customs. We will each travel the river together, but each in our own boat. And neither of us will try to steer the other's vessel.'" The agreement has been kept by the Iroquois/Haudenosaunee to this date.
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  Canku Ota is a free, bi-weekly, online Newsletter celebrating Native America, its traditions and accomplishments . We do not provide subscriber or visitor names to anyone. Some articles presented in Canku Ota may contain copyright material. We have received appropriate permissions for republishing any articles. Material appearing here is distributed without profit or monetary gain to those who have expressed an interest. This is in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107 Fair Use doctrine of international copyright law. Please read our privacy policy.  
Canku Ota is a copyright © 2000, 2001 of Vicki Lockard and Paul Barry.
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